[Leetcode]112. Path Sum

limelimejiwon·2022년 3월 22일
0

📄 Description

Given the root of a binary tree and an integer targetSum, return true if the tree has a root-to-leaf path such that adding up all the values along the path equals targetSum.

A leaf is a node with no children.

Example 1:

Output: true
Explanation: The root-to-leaf path with the target sum is shown.

Example 2:

Output: false
Explanation: There two root-to-leaf paths in the tree:
(1 --> 2): The sum is 3.
(1 --> 3): The sum is 4.
There is no root-to-leaf path with sum = 5.

Example 3:

Input: root = [], targetSum = 0
Output: false
Explanation: Since the tree is empty, there are no root-to-leaf paths.

🔨 My Solution

  • DFS using stack

🔵 Rules

  • stack contains elements of (current node, sum)
  • pop(0) ensures the DFS approach, that it will go down the tree until it reaches leaf node.
  • if the curr_node is a leaf node,
    => If the node_sum is same as targetSum, return True
    => If not, it will continue with the next node.
  • If the while loop stops, it means there is no PathSum, so return False.

💻 My Submission

class Solution:
    def hasPathSum(self, root: Optional[TreeNode], targetSum: int) -> bool:
        
        # if the tree is empty, there are no roof-to-leaf path
        if root is None:
            return False
        
        stack=[(root, 0)]
        
        # DFS using stack
        while stack:
            cur_node,node_sum=stack.pop()
            node_sum+=cur_node.val
            # if the node is leaf node
            if cur_node.left is None and cur_node.right is None:
                if node_sum==targetSum: return True
            if cur_node.left: stack.append((cur_node.left,node_sum))
            if cur_node.right: stack.append((cur_node.right,node_sum))
        return False

Other solutions (1) DFS Recursively

class Solution:
    def hasPathSum(self, root: Optional[TreeNode], targetSum: int) -> bool:
        # DFS recursively
        if root is None:
            return False
        
        res=[]
        self.recursion(root, targetSum, res)
        return any(res)
        
    def recursion(self, cur_node, target, res):
        if cur_node.left is None and cur_node.right is None:
            if cur_node.val==target: res.append(True)
        if cur_node.left: self.recursion(cur_node.left, target-cur_node.val, res)
        if cur_node.right: self.recursion(cur_node.right, target-cur_node.val, res)

💡 What I learned

  1. any() function
  • This function receives iterable object(list, string, dictionary etc.)
  • If at least one element of an iterable is true, it returns True.
  • If all elements are false or if an iterable is empty it returns False.

Improved version of DFS Recursively

def hasPathSum1(self, root, sum):
    if not root:
        return False
    if not root.left and not root.right and root.val == sum:
        return True
    return self.hasPathSum(root.left, sum-root.val) or self.hasPathSum(root.right, sum-root.val)

Other solutions (2) BFS using queue

class Solution:
    def hasPathSum(self, root: Optional[TreeNode], targetSum: int) -> bool:
        # BFS using queue
        if root is None:
            return False
        
        queue=[(root, 0)]
        
        while queue:
            node,node_sum=queue.pop(0)
            node_sum+=node.val
            if not node.left and not node.right:
                if node_sum==targetSum: return True
            if node.left: queue.append((node.left, node_sum))
            if node.right: queue.append((node.right, node_sum))
        return False

DFS vs BFS for solution

References
https://leetcode.com/problems/path-sum/
https://leetcode.com/problems/path-sum/discuss/36486/Python-solutions-(DFS-recursively-DFS%2Bstack-BFS%2Bqueue)
https://www.programiz.com/python-programming/methods/built-in/any

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