# Tuples are like lists. But,

dev_damjaeng·2022년 8월 17일
0

## 2022 PY4E

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17/18 ### Tuples are like lists

Tuples are another king of sequence that functions much like a list - they have elements which are indexed starting at 0

>>> x = ('Glenn', 'Sally', 'Joseph')
>>> print(x)
Joseph
>>> y = (1, 9, 2)
>>> print(y)
(1, 9, 2)
>>> print(max(y))
9 

### but.. Tuples are “immutable”

Unlike a list, once you create a tuple, you cannot alter its contents - similar to a string

### A Tale fo Two sequences

>>> l = list()
>>> dir(l)
['append', 'count', 'extend', 'index', 'insert', 'pop', 'remove', 'reverse', 'sort']

>>> t = tuple()
>>> dir(t)
['count', 'index'] 

### Tuples are more efficient

• Since Python does not have to build tuple structures to be modifiable, they are simpler and more efficient in terms of memory use and performance than lists
• So in our program when we are making “temporary variables” we prefer tuples over lists

### Tuples and Assignment

• We can also put a tuple on the left-hand side of an assignment statement
• We can even omit the parentheses
>>> (x, y) = (4, 'fred')
>>> print(y)
fred
>>> (a, b) = (99, 98)
>>> print(a)
99

### Tuples and Dictionaries

The items() method in dictionaries returns a list of (key, value) tuples

>>> d = dict()
>>> d['csev'] = 2
>>> d['cwen'] = 4
>>> for (k, v) in d.items() :
print(k, v)
...
...
csev 2
cwen 4
>>> tups = d.items()
>>> print(tups)
dict_items([('csev', 2), ('cwen', 4)])

### Tuples are Comparable

The comparison operators work with
tuples
and other sequences. If the first item is equl, Python goes on to the next element, and so on, until it finds elements that differ.

(0, 1, 2) < (5, 1, 2)
# True 값을 가집니다.
(0, 1, 2000000) < (0, 3, 4)
# True 값을 가집니다.
( 'Jones', 'Sally' ) < ('Jones', 'Sam')
# True 값을 가집니다.
( 'Jones', 'Sally') > ('Adams', 'Sam')
# True 값을 가집니다.

### Sorting Lists of Tuples

• We can take advantage of the ability to sort a list of
tuples
to get a sorted version of a dictionary
• First we sort the dictionary by the key using the items() method and
sorted()
function
>>> d = {'a':10, 'b':1, 'c':22}
>>> d.items()
dict_items([('a', 10), ('c', 22), ('b', 1)])
>>> sorted(d.items())
[('a', 10), ('b', 1), ('c', 22)]

### Using sorted()

We can do this even more directly using the built-in function sorted that takes a sequence as a parameter and returns a sorted sequence

>>> d = {'a':10, 'b':1, 'c':22}
>>> t = sorted(d.items())
>>> t
[('a', 10), ('b', 1), ('c', 22)]
>>> for k, v in sorted(d.items()):
print(k, v)
...
...
a 10
b 1
c 22

### Sort by values instead of key

• If we could construct a list of tuples of the form (value, key) we could sort by value
• We do this with a for loop that creates a list of tuples
>>> c = {'a':10, 'b':1, 'c':22}
>>> tmp = list()
>>> for k, v in c.items() :
tmp.append( (v, k) )
...
...
>>> print(tmp)
# [(10, 'a'), (1, 'b'), (22, 'c')]
>>> tmp = sorted(tmp)
>>> print(tmp)
# [(1, 'b'), (10, 'a'), (22, 'c')]

### The top 10 most common words

fhand = open('romeo.txt')
counts = {}
for line in fhand:
words = line.split()
for word in words:
counts[word] = counts.get(word, 0 ) + 1

lst = []
for key, val in counts.items():
newtup = (val, key)
lst.append(newtup)

lst = sorted(lst, reverse=True)

for val, key in lst[:10] :
print(key, val)

### Even Shorter Vwesion

List comprehension creates a dynamic list. In this case, we make a list of reversed tuples and then sort it.

c = {'a':10, 'b':1, 'c':22}
print( sorted( [ (v,k) for k,v in c.items() ] ) )
# [(1, 'b'), (10, 'a'), (22, 'c')]

### Summary

• Tuple syntax
• Immutability
• Comparability
• Sorting
• Tuples in assignment statements
• Sorting dictionaries by either key or value